CassandraAppender – distributed logging,分布式软件logback-appender

农历年最后一场scala-meetup听刘颖分享专业软件开发经验,大受启发。突然意识到一直以来都没有完全按照任何标准的开发规范做事。诚然,在做技术调研和学习的过程中不会对规范操作有什么严格要求,一旦技术落地进入应用阶段,开始进行产品开发时,只有严格按照专业的软件开发规范才能保证软件产品的质量。刘颖在meetup中提到了异常处理(exception handling)和过程跟踪(logging)作为软件开发规范中的重要环节。我们在这篇先讨论logging。logging通过记录软件运行过程帮助开发者跟踪软件运行情况,分析运算结果或者异常产生原因,是一个成功完整的软件不可缺少的环节。 logback应该是java生态链中最流行、最通用的logger了。虽然logback已经提供了STDOUT、FILE、DB等多种跟踪信息输出方式,即ConsoleAppender、FileAppender、DBAppender,但针对分布式应用的appender还是需要定制。因为分布式软件是跨系统运行的,跟踪信息自然也会在不同的系统中产生并存储,所以分布式应用需要分布式存储才能实现跟踪信息的全局管理。logback是一套开发架构,任何定制的appender可以很方便地整合入logback。那么我们就尝试开发一套基于cassandra的logback-appender。

首先认识一下logback:感觉需要重点了解的logging运作核心应该是消息等级level的操作。消息等级是指logback根据不同的消息等级来筛选需要记录的消息。logback支持下面几个消息等级,按照各自记录动作覆盖面由弱到强排列,包括:

TRACE -> DEBUG -> INFO -> WARN -> ERROR 分别对应记录函数 trace(msg),debug(msg),info(msg),warn(msg),error(msg)

logback按消息等级进行记录筛选的规则如下:

假设记录函数为p,某个class的消息等级level为q:当p>=q时选择记录消息。换言之调用函数error(msg)时logback会记录所有等级消息,反之trace(msg)只能记录TRACE级别的消息。logback手册中如下表示:

TRACE DEBUG INFO WARN ERROR OFF trace() YES NO NO NO NO NO debug() YES YES NO NO NO NO info() YES YES YES NO NO NO warn() YES YES YES YES NO NO error() YES YES YES YES YES NO

logback中每个类的默认消息等级可以按照类型继承树结构继承。当一个子类没有定义消息等级时,它继承对上父类的消息等级,即:X.Y.Z中Z的默认消息等级从Y继承。

好了,以上运作流程都包括在logback的功能里了,跟消息的存储appender没什么关系。下面我们就开始自制一套基于cassandra的appender。上面提过,logback是一套开放的框架,任何按照logback要求开发的appender都可以很方便的整合入logback的功能中去。下面是一个logback的appender框架:

package com.datatech.logback  import ch.qos.logback.classic.spi.ILoggingEvent  import ch.qos.logback.core.UnsynchronizedAppenderBase  import com.datastax.driver.core.querybuilder.QueryBuilder    class CassandraAppender extends UnsynchronizedAppenderBase[ILoggingEvent]{      override def append(eventObject: ILoggingEvent): Unit = {      //write log message to cassandra      }      override def start(): Unit = {      //setup cassandra      super.start()    }      override def stop(): Unit = {      super.stop()      //clean up, closing cassandra    }      }

我们先实现一个完整的logback配置文件logback.xml,包括ConsoleAppender,FileAppender,CassandraAppender

<configuration>      <appender name="STDOUT" class="ch.qos.logback.core.ConsoleAppender">          <encoder>              <Pattern>                  %d{yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss} [%thread] %-5level %logger{36} - %msg%n              </Pattern>          </encoder>      </appender>      <appender name="FILE" class="ch.qos.logback.core.FileAppender">          <!-- path to your log file, where you want to store logs -->          <file>/Users/Tiger/logback.log</file>          <append>false</append>          <encoder>              <pattern>%d{HH:mm:ss.SSS} [%thread] %-5level %logger{36} - %msg%n</pattern>          </encoder>      </appender>      <appender name="cassandraLogger" class="com.datatech.logback.CassandraAppender">        <hosts>192.168.0.189</hosts>          <port>9042</port>          <appName>posware</appName>          <defaultFieldValues>{"app_customer":"bayakala.com","app_device":"1001"}</defaultFieldValues>        <keyspaceName>applog</keyspaceName>        <columnFamily>txnlog</columnFamily>      </appender>      <root level="debug">        <appender-ref ref="cassandraLogger" />        <appender-ref ref="STDOUT" />      </root>      <shutdownHook class="ch.qos.logback.core.hook.DelayingShutdownHook"/>  </configuration>

配置文件里CassandraAppender的属性,如hosts,port,keyspaceName等在scala程序实现方法如下:

 private var _hosts: String = ""    def setHosts(hosts: String): Unit = _hosts = hosts      private var _port: Int = 9042 // for the binary protocol, 9160 is default for thrift    def setPort(port: Int): Unit = _port = port      private var _username: String = ""    def setUsername(username: String): Unit = _username = username      private var _password: String = ""    def setPassword(password: String): Unit = _password = password

属性的使用如下:

  writeLog(eventObject)(optSession.get, _keyspaceName, _columnFamily)(_appName,ip,hostname,_defaultFieldValues)

实际上logback.xml里的这些属性可以在runtime时设定,如下:

//get appender instances    val log: Logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(org.slf4j.Logger.ROOT_LOGGER_NAME).asInstanceOf[Logger]    val cassAppender = log.getAppender("cassandraLogger").asInstanceOf[CassandraAppender]    val stdoutAppender = log.getAppender("STDOUT").asInstanceOf[ConsoleAppender[ILoggingEvent]]    val fileAppender = log.getAppender("FILE").asInstanceOf[FileAppender[ILoggingEvent]]      if(cassAppender != null) {      cassAppender.setHosts("192.168.0.189")      cassAppender.setPort(9042)      cassAppender.start()    }

与通用的appender不同的是:我们需要在应用中与logback进行互动,因为我们需要把具体应用中一些特定的跟踪目标当作数据库字段记录起来。这些特定的跟踪目标如userid,productid等是应用业务特有的,通用的logger是无法覆盖的。所以我们关注的是一套在应用层面通用的logger。为了实现这一目标,首先可以在数据库表结构schema里表现应用的业务特点,下面是个例子:

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS applog.txnlog (      class_name text,      file_name text,      host_ip text,      host_name text,      level text,      line_number text,      logger_name text,      method_name text,      thread_name text,      throwable_str_rep text,      log_date text,      log_time text,      log_msg text,      app_name text,      app_customer text,      app_device text,      PRIMARY KEY (app_customer, app_device, log_date, log_time)  );

以上的schema中app_customer,app_device属于应用业务属性,因为我们希望从用户或设备角度对消息进行分类管理。以此类推对其它应用我们也是通过设计另一套涵盖业务特性的schema。这些反应业务特性的字段必须在应用中调用消息记录函数时提供,因为这些字段的内容是动态的(如:一个服务端软件的用户可能有几百上千个)。我们只能通过记录的消息来传递这些字段的值。记住,logback可以同时支持自带的appender如ConsoleAppender,FileAppender等,以及CassandraAppender,大家共用logback获取的msg,但我们又必须通过对msg的处理才能加入动态属性的值。为了不影响msg的可读性,可以用json来处理msg,如下:

   var msg = event.getMessage()      try {        val logMap = fromJson[Map[String,String]](msg)        logMap.foreach ( m => qryInsert = qryInsert.value(m._1, m._2))      } catch {        case e: Throwable =>          qryInsert = qryInsert.value(MESSAGE, msg)          try {          val dftMap = fromJson[Map[String,String]](default)          dftMap.foreach ( m => qryInsert = qryInsert.value(m._1, m._2))        } catch {          case e: Throwable => }      }      session.execute(qryInsert)

如果event.getMessage()获取的msg不是json格式(如:消息是应用中引用的第三方工具库产生的),就采用在配置文件中定义的默认值(也是json格式的),如上面配置文件中的<defaultFieldValues>属性。

cassandra的使用比较简单,而且我们只使用了insert一项操作。完整的CassandraAppender源代码如下:

package com.datatech.logback  import ch.qos.logback.classic.spi._  import ch.qos.logback.core.UnsynchronizedAppenderBase  import com.datastax.driver.core._  import com.datastax.driver.core.querybuilder.{Insert, QueryBuilder}  import java.net.InetAddress  import java.time._  import java.time.format._  import java.util.Locale    class CassandraAppender extends UnsynchronizedAppenderBase[ILoggingEvent]{  import CassandraAppender._      private var _hosts: String = ""    def setHosts(hosts: String): Unit = _hosts = hosts      private var _port: Int = 9042 // for the binary protocol, 9160 is default for thrift    def setPort(port: Int): Unit = _port = port      private var _username: String = ""    def setUsername(username: String): Unit = _username = username      private var _password: String = ""    def setPassword(password: String): Unit = _password = password      private var _defaultFieldValues: String = ""    def setDefaultFieldValues(defaultFieldValues: String) = _defaultFieldValues = defaultFieldValues      private val ip: String = getIP()    private val hostname: String = getHostName()        // Keyspace/ColumnFamily information    private var _keyspaceName: String = "Logging"    def setKeyspaceName(keyspaceName: String): Unit = _keyspaceName = keyspaceName      private var _columnFamily: String = "log_entries"    def setColumnFamily(columnFamily: String): Unit = _columnFamily = columnFamily      private var _appName: String = "default"    def setAppName(appName: String): Unit = _appName = appName      private var _replication: String = "{ 'class' : 'SimpleStrategy', 'replication_factor' : 1 }"    def setReplication(replication: String): Unit = _replication = replication      private var _consistencyLevelWrite: ConsistencyLevel = ConsistencyLevel.ONE    def setConsistencyLevelWrite(consistencyLevelWrite: String): Unit = {      try {        _consistencyLevelWrite = ConsistencyLevel.valueOf(consistencyLevelWrite.trim)      } catch { case e: Throwable =>           throw new IllegalArgumentException("Consistency level " + consistencyLevelWrite + " wasn't found.")      }    }        private var optCluster: Option[Cluster] = None    private var optSession: Option[Session] = None      def connectDB(): Unit = {      try {        val cluster = new Cluster        .Builder()          .addContactPoints(_hosts)          .withPort(_port)          .build()        val session = cluster.connect()        optCluster = Some(cluster)        optSession = Some(session)      } catch {        case e: Throwable =>          optCluster = None          optSession = None          println(s"error when logger connecting to cassandra [${_hosts}:${_port}]")      }    }        override def append(eventObject: ILoggingEvent): Unit = {      if(optSession.isDefined) {        try {          writeLog(eventObject)(optSession.get, _keyspaceName, _columnFamily)(_appName,ip,hostname,_defaultFieldValues)        } catch {          case e: Throwable =>        }      }    }      override def start(): Unit = {      if(! _hosts.isEmpty) {        connectDB()        super.start()      }    }      override def stop(): Unit = {      super.stop()      if(optSession.isDefined) {        optSession.get.closeAsync()        optCluster.get.closeAsync()      }    }    }    object CassandraAppender extends JsonConverter {    // CF column names    val HOST_IP: String = "host_ip"    val HOST_NAME: String  = "host_name"    val APP_NAME: String = "app_name"    val LOGGER_NAME: String = "logger_name"    val LEVEL: String  = "level"    val CLASS_NAME: String = "class_name"    val FILE_NAME: String = "file_name"    val LINE_NUMBER: String = "line_number"    val METHOD_NAME: String = "method_name"    val THREAD_NAME: String = "thread_name"    val THROWABLE_STR: String = "throwable_str_rep"    val LOG_DATE: String = "log_date"    val LOG_TIME: String = "log_time"    val MESSAGE: String = "log_msg"      val  dateTimeFormatter = DateTimeFormatter.ofPattern("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss.SSS", Locale.US)    def logDate: String = java.time.LocalDate.now.format(DateTimeFormatter.ofPattern("yyyy-MM-dd"))    def logTime: String = LocalDateTime.now.format(dateTimeFormatter).substring(11)      def writeLog(event: ILoggingEvent)(session: Session, kspc: String, tbl: String)(appName: String, ip: String, hostName: String, default: String): ResultSet = {       var qryInsert = QueryBuilder.insertInto(kspc,tbl)           .value(APP_NAME,appName)           .value(HOST_IP,ip)           .value(HOST_NAME,hostName)           .value(LOGGER_NAME,event.getLoggerName())           .value(LEVEL,event.getLevel().toString)           .value(THREAD_NAME,event.getThreadName())           .value(LOG_DATE,logDate)           .value(LOG_TIME,logTime)         try {         val callerData = event.getCallerData()         if (callerData.nonEmpty) {           qryInsert = qryInsert.value(CLASS_NAME, callerData.head.getClassName())             .value(FILE_NAME, callerData.head.getFileName())             .value(LINE_NUMBER, callerData.head.getLineNumber().toString)             .value(METHOD_NAME, callerData.head.getMethodName())         }       } catch {case e: Throwable => println(s"logging event error: ${e.getMessage}")}         try {         if (event.getThrowableProxy() != null) {           val throwableStrs = event.getThrowableProxy().getSuppressed().asInstanceOf[List[IThrowableProxy]]           val throwableStr = throwableStrs.foldLeft("") { case (b, t) => b + "," + t.getMessage() }           qryInsert = qryInsert.value(THROWABLE_STR, throwableStr)         }       } catch {case e: Throwable => println(s"logging event error: ${e.getMessage}")}        var msg = event.getMessage()      try {        val logMap = fromJson[Map[String,String]](msg)        logMap.foreach ( m => qryInsert = qryInsert.value(m._1, m._2))      } catch {        case e: Throwable =>          qryInsert = qryInsert.value(MESSAGE, msg)          try {          val dftMap = fromJson[Map[String,String]](default)          dftMap.foreach ( m => qryInsert = qryInsert.value(m._1, m._2))        } catch {          case e: Throwable => }      }      session.execute(qryInsert)    }      def getHostName(): String = {      var hostname = "unknown"      try {        val addr: InetAddress = InetAddress.getLocalHost()        hostname = addr.getHostName()      } catch { case e: Throwable => hostname = "error"}      hostname    }      def getIP(): String = {     var ip: String = "unknown"      try {        val addr: InetAddress = InetAddress.getLocalHost()        ip = addr.getHostAddress()      } catch { case e: Throwable => ip = "error" }      ip    }    }

下面是测试代码:

import ch.qos.logback.classic.Logger  import ch.qos.logback.core.{ConsoleAppender, FileAppender}  import com.datatech.logback.{CassandraAppender, JsonConverter}  import ch.qos.logback.classic.spi.ILoggingEvent  import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory  import ch.qos.logback.classic.LoggerContext  import java.time._  import java.time.format._  import java.util.Locale    import scala.io._  import com.datastax.driver.core._      object LoggingDemo extends App with JsonConverter {    val log: Logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(org.slf4j.Logger.ROOT_LOGGER_NAME).asInstanceOf[Logger]    val cassAppender = log.getAppender("cassandraLogger").asInstanceOf[CassandraAppender]    val stdoutAppender = log.getAppender("STDOUT").asInstanceOf[ConsoleAppender[ILoggingEvent]]    val fileAppender = log.getAppender("FILE").asInstanceOf[FileAppender[ILoggingEvent]]      /*    val cluster = new Cluster    .Builder()      .addContactPoints("192.168.0.189")      .withPort(9042)      .build()    val session = cluster.connect()    val keyspace = getClass.getResource("/logger.schema")    val table = getClass.getResource("/txnlog.schema")    val qrykspc = Source.fromFile(keyspace.getPath).getLines.mkString    session.execute(qrykspc)      val qrytbl = Source.fromFile(table.getPath).getLines.mkString    session.execute(qrytbl)      session.close()    cluster.close()        val json = toJson(loggedItems)    println(s"json = $json")      val m = fromJson[Map[String,String]](json)    println(s"map = $m")      //stop the appenders    if (stdoutAppender != null)       stdoutAppender.stop()    if (fileAppender != null)        fileAppender.stop()  */      if(cassAppender != null) {      cassAppender.setHosts("192.168.0.189")      cassAppender.setPort(9042)      cassAppender.start()    }      val  dateTimeFormatter = DateTimeFormatter.ofPattern("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss.SSS", Locale.US)    val now = LocalDateTime.now.format(dateTimeFormatter)      log.info("************this is a info message ..." + now)    log.debug("***********debugging message here ..." + now)      var loggedItems = Map[String,String]()  //  loggedItems += ("app_name" -> "test")    loggedItems = loggedItems ++ Map(      ("app_customer" -> "logback.com"),      ("app_device" -> "9101"),      ("log_msg" -> "specific message for cassandra ..."))      log.debug(toJson(loggedItems))      //stop the logger    val loggerContext = LoggerFactory.getILoggerFactory.asInstanceOf[LoggerContext]    loggerContext.stop()  }